The surface of Kanker is built of different types of hills. These hills are ancient. In Geography we can divide these hills in three groups.
These hill groups are spread in the south eastern part of Kanker district, where six phase of quartile and sand are also found.
The 95% area of Kanker is covered by Arvhian Hill Group. In this area Granite and Nees rocks are spread over almost all the geographical area of the district.
According to E. H. Kaskoi Dharwar hill groups are very crude and broken in shape and form. These hills are spread over the north of Sambalpur and Bhanupratappur. Land surface of Kanker is not same every where. It is in hilly shape. The land surface is 300 to 600 meters hifher than sea level. Around 80 percent area of Kanker is plane surface. Plane surface can be divided in two parts.
North east part of Kanker comes under Mahanadi plane. The height of this plane is less than 500 meters. The main river of this area is Mahanadi. Hatkul, Chinar, Doodh, Sendoor, Nakti and Doori are the other rivers of the area. Kotri plane comes under Bhanupratappur area. Kotri and Valler are the main rivers of this area. The height of this plane is less than 400 meters.
Amongst natural resources plants have greater importance and are useful in various human beings and are full of beauty and attractions. Plants reflect other human resources. In Kanker district Saul, Teak and mixed forests are found . Saul forests are found in the eastern part of the district , Teak forests are found in the Bhanupratappur region and mixed forests are found in maximum region. In which so many medicinal plants and other plants are found like Saja, Tendu, Dhaura, Bija, Harra, Mahua etc.
The origin of soil is Kanker is from Granite, Nees sand, Khedar and change stone powders. Mainly here red soil is found. Red color gentility and organism effects the lower surface of the Earth. In higher region less down and faint color soil are found and smooth and fertile soil is found in river valleys. soil of this district can be divided into four sections.
This type of soil is black in color and oilish. The power of water absorption in this soil is greater and this is very useful in growing of Kharif and Rabi crops in the region. This type of soil is found in the near by region of Kotri and mahanadi regions.
This type of soil is medum in nature and it is very much similar of Matasi and Kanhar type soil. This type of soil is found in north east Kanker and Bhanupratappur region.
This type of soil is found at higher land surface than Kanhar and less than Bhata. This soil is appropriate for rice crop. This type of soil is found in the maximum area of Kanker region.
Bhata is effected with late rating process and found in red, yellow mixed shape and condition. This is appropriate for the crops like Kodo, Kulthi, Maize, Bhadia and Kutki.
Modern tradition and culture are mainly depends on minerals. The development of agriculture, industries, transport and communication depend on the status of rich mineral resources. Kanker is poor in minerals Iron Ore quartzite and garnet mines are found in region iron and ore deposit have been found in the region of Bhanupratappur. But mining of these minerals have not started till now. Deposit of Quartzite and garnet have been also found in southern region of Kanker district and garnet deposit in north east region of Bhanupratappur.
About 1000 Lacks ton Iron and ore deposits are verified in hahaladdi region of the Bhanupratappur Tahasil.
The best quality of this Iron and are can be utilized in the over all development of industries in the district. Black and white granite are found in plenty quantity in the district. It is used in constructions of building materials and preparation of shaped stones.
In Markatola of Kanker district and in Barchhegondi region silimanite/ kinite deposits have been bordered in which made as the anti temprature agents.
Sings of gold deposits have been found in Sona dehi, Michgaon and in sum other region of Bhanupratappur Tahasil. Exlended survays are on progress.
The Economy of Kanker is based agriculture and also it is a main job of tribes. the land is not plane surface and forestry. so the farmer who live in forest cut the trees before the rainy season and plough the land for agriculture. and seeds rice or other grain. this type of agriculture is called as Marhan or Dippa. After one and two years they prepare a new farm and leave the old one. And on the plane land the agriculture is done each and every year. People divide their farms by constructing the small partitions. Rice is the main crop of area but wheat, sugar cane, chana, Kodo, Moong, Tilli, bhutta are the other important crops. People also grow many types of vegetables. A lot of fruits like Mangoes, Bananas etc are also produced.